For many years, science has been primarily concerned with the study of short-term physiological responses to physical activity. But now scientists have gone further. A recent study looked at how long-term physical training (over 10 years) affects the activity of human genes.
During the experiment, scientists analyzed in detail the accumulated changes in gene transcription in skeletal muscle in 40 volunteers. Of these, 18 are people who have developed endurance for many years, 7 - strength, and 15 people made up the control "non-sports" group.
RNA was sequenced from skeletal muscle biopsies and has been able to track the expression of over 20, 000 genes. The results showed that many years of endurance training (running or cycling) significantly altered about 1, 000 genes. In the genes of those who have been on strength machines for a long time, the changes were much more modest - only 26.
In addition, the scientists compared the collected data with the results of previous studies of gene activity in type 2 diabetics after physical training for 6-12 months. It turned out that even short-term training allows people with metabolic diseases to bring the genetic profile of their skeletal muscles closer to that of healthy and trained athletes.
The results of the study were published in the journal Cell Reports.