After the discovery of the Higgs boson and the discovery of several new particles last year, the semi-legendary installation has reached its limit. Therefore, in 2016 it was modernized, increasing its capacity, and now the researchers are reporting on a new large "catch". It is amazing - there are five versions of one important elementary particle at once.
The enchanted omega baryon was insidious and elusive, it was impossible to measure it in any way, only to fix the trace of the former presence of a subatomic particle in some experiments. And now - unprecedented luck. The team of researchers found a whole scattering of omega baryons and calculated that they are in five different energy states.
This pulls on the opening of the century and makes you look at quarks, their nature and behavior, from a completely new angle. Omega baryons, like protons and neutrons, are "large" particles, collectively called "hadrons". Their structure is formed by a combination of different types of quarks, two or three particles for each hadron. For example, the same charmed omega baryon consists of one charmed quark and two strange quarks.
It is extremely difficult to study directly the quarks themselves, therefore the process goes through the analysis of the properties and structure of hadrons. In the light of the latest discoveries at the Large Hadron Collider, scientists have come to the conclusion that hadrons of 5-6 quarks instead of the usual 2-3 are not uncommon, but just a new layer of unexplored particles. Five versions of the enchanted omega-baryon are a clear confirmation of this, and now it is not only possible, but also necessary to search with enthusiasm for new curious particles.