In the near future, Russia is expecting the onset of the era of robotization. As Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev said, speaking at the plenary discussion of the Gaidar Forum in Moscow, a new milestone in Russia can play a positive role in the labor market - it will not only not spur unemployment, but will also raise the level of wages.
“Automation and robotization ... must create conditions for increasing labor productivity and for a reasonable increase in wages, ” the prime minister explained.
He stressed that rising unemployment is often seen as an inevitable consequence of robotization. However, Medvedev noted, new technologies can help to cope with the shortage of labor resources, especially in those regions where it is relevant. "Russia will indeed experience such problems in the near future due to the consequences of a decrease in the birth rate, " the prime minister added.
Earlier, the head of the Center for Strategic Research, Alexei Kudrin, said that it is thanks to the robotization of many processes in Russia that about a third of professions will disappear in the next six years. First of all, we are talking about lawyers and economists. The changes will also affect the sphere of tax accounting. A robotic tax system could warn businesses about mistakes, thus reducing the number of visits and face-to-face inspections of companies, Kudrin said. In his opinion, in the coming years Russia will lack about a million programmers to digitize all industries.
The growing robotization is not only a threat and a complex challenge to the country's socio-economic system, but also additional opportunities, says the editor-in-chief of the information and analytical agency "National Expert", Ph.D. Mikhail Bely.
“This is about inevitable progress. And the main question is whether to prevent it, trying to linger in the past, in which all of us, at first glance, are familiar and comfortable, or to be ready for this difficult challenge, ”the expert explained. According to Bely, not all regions today are seriously ready for restructuring and a radical change in personnel policy. “The winners will be those regions that are already concerned about this problem. It is obvious that, despite the coming robotization, the stake on unique human capital remains. "
The arrival of the era of robotic production means a high need for personnel involved in the maintenance and debugging of robots, production facilities of a new level. So one more area on which the authorities are betting is the training of highly professional personnel.
The system of training technical personnel is also changing in the regions. If three years ago in Russia there was an acute need for sales managers, now at the peak of demand there are engineers and technicians. According to the Employment Service, the country is already in great demand for process engineers, instrumentation specialists, process technicians, machine and equipment adjusters. The labor market responds to changes in the economic situation in the country. But enterprises still lack qualified personnel, this is a big resource problem for the industry. Thus, in the field of biotechnology, personnel shortage is experienced by 93% of companies. More than 40% of managers complain that the qualifications of young specialists do not meet today's requirements. In robotics, two-thirds of companies complain about the shortage of personnel (www.pravda.ru/society/22-10-2017/1351456-kadri-0/).
Training of specialists required in a country with a digital economy and robotization takes place both within the framework of existing universities and within the framework of special programs. The Union "Young Professionals (WorldSkills Russia)" notes that soon specialists from Russia will be in demand at enterprises producing modern innovative materials around the world.
Experts say that one of the ways to solve the problem of staff shortages is targeted training of specialists. The defense-industrial complex is effectively coping with this, where a program of state support for the financial and economic enterprises of the defense industry is in place, which provides for professional retraining and training in the system of additional vocational education for as many as 152 thousand workers. In St. Petersburg, preparation is being actively carried out, many universities are involved, including Voenmekh, the A.F. Mozhaisky Military Space Academy, and SUAI. Young people are attracted by the high wages and career opportunities available after completing their studies.
In the Tula region, a whole system of personnel training for various sectors of the economy has already been successfully built, taking into account the frequently changing modern realities. The system includes all levels of educational institutions - schools, universities, additional education, large enterprises of the region and authorities. Much attention is paid to the practice of multilateral cooperation. Thus, an agreement has already been signed between the authorities, KBP named after Academician Shipunov, Tula State University and one of the Tula lyceums, which provides for close interaction in the development of physics and mathematics education. And on the basis of the Oktava plant, it is planned to open the country's first Higher Technical School with a special technical educational platform for complex working specialties (by agreement of the regional government, Rostec Corporation and the Agency for the Development of Professional Communities and Workers Worldskills Russia).
An important step towards the formation of progressive training of personnel can be the global project "Composite Valley", initiated by the leadership of the Tula region. It involves the creation in the region of an innovative scientific and industrial cluster on the basis of the Tula State University in partnership with the Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov and with the participation of the RCTU and other universities. In the special economic zone "Uzlovaya", young specialists will be provided with production sites where they can consolidate their knowledge in practice.
“For our region, traditionally strong in the defense and chemical industries, the creation of such a specialized cluster is an open door to the world market of new generation special materials. Creation of more than 3, 000 highly productive jobs. Increasing the scientific and technical potential of the region. It will be, without the slightest doubt, a breakthrough project, ”said the Governor of the Tula Region Alexey Dyumin (https://tularegion.ru/presscenter/press-release/?ELEMENT_ID=118809).
The creation of the first Digital Economy Center in the Far East was announced by the Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU). The recruitment of managers for the team is already underway. Among the tasks of the new center will be the formation of competencies in the field of artificial intelligence, quantum technologies, robotics, virtual and augmented reality, the use of big data, as well as the creation of digital twins in engineering development and neurotechnologies in the management of the engineering environment (http://tass.ru/ obschestvo / 4866323).
A special agglomeration will be created in the Kaluga Region to pool resources and develop scientific projects. Its task is to help those wishing to do innovative entrepreneurship, as well as to train personnel for the innovative sphere. The main profile is nuclear technology, so closely related to energy, medicine and the digital economy.
Since the new academic year, a new department has appeared at the Ulyanovsk State Technical University - "Technologies of the Internet of Things", it is planned to create centers of competence at Ulyanovsk universities (for example, a technological center for the industrial Internet in mechanical engineering will start working on the basis of the technical university, and a blockchain center will be opened on the basis of Ulyanovsk State University) -technologies).
But the training is carried out not only for students: in order to train personnel for the development of the digital economy in the Ulyanovsk region, with the support of the head of the region Sergey Morozov, Yandex.Licei was opened. More and more branches of children's technology parks "Quantorium" are opening across the country (http://www.tadviser.ru/index.php/Company: TAdviser).
“If contacts with universities, colleges and vocational schools have already been established in the regions, then interaction with schools is a new trend. It is especially noticeable in technical areas, IT-digital, e-commerce areas - in everything related to the professions of the future. This is happening now in Novosibirsk, Kazan, Tula, Yaroslavl, ”said Ekaterina Tretyakova, head of production and construction practice at Antal Russia recruiting company.
She explained that she was personally present at the forums at which the named regions presented their potential for investment, and noted their obvious interest in raising their own personnel from school.
Timely reaction of regions to changes in the formation of the economy and the situation on the labor market will allow them to keep up with the times and accumulate new experience necessary to meet the challenges of the digital future.